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Blogging in 2020? This 7 points will determine your success.

Blogging in 2020? This 7 points will determine your success.

What is Blogging?

All of you know what is blogging and it’s a very old topic for  discussion. I also agree with this . People are more likely to spend time watching youtube videos than reading and understanding a topic ,which you  explained in the blog post or anything written on the internet.

Then, why blogging is so relevant today ?

Yes, blogging is still relevant in this time and there are a lot of reasons for saying that. 

1. No Alternative Medium Has Become Equivalent To Blogging.


 Number one reason is that, still  there is no affordable way to avail an alternative medium .Yes, YouTube, Podcasts etc. are available to people .But those are very limited compared to the resources available in the written form on websites and blogs. So, it would take more time to get those alternative medium to come out with real alternative form of blogging.

So, this situation has opened a new window to bloggers and  website owners. Now there is an ongoing trend in almost every blog to add  audio version of the blog post or add video within the post. Alexa,Siri,Google Home are revolutionising the digital platform now a days.

 So, this is kinda ‘old wine in New bottle’ situation.

2. People are more lazy.


 The people are more lazy to read a whole blog post.  Almost 70 to 80 % of people don’t read a whole paragraph ,rather they are willing to find out most empathize word or group of words, bold words,most matching words with their minds and requirements .

This is a trend ,you can not ignore it. On another side Google is updating its algorithm to find out the genuine post and rank it accordingly. So,it’s a tough game to become viral using blogging. A genuine post with the touch of people’s choice ,can avail you to  get a place in the ranking.Though there is no guarantee of this. So, I personally advise one, not to dive into the blogging without having an additional way of earning money.


3. Reader vs Picker


 In the previous point we told the picking tendency of a reader ie. they are more willing to pick tricky words or bold word. This type of trendency have opened opportunity to advertising firms.People are  easily distracted by sidebar advertisement or catchy captions .This is  one of the marketing tricks ,which is very popular today. On the other side there are genuine readers who are actually want to get informative content, that is a genuine content. Here you have to choose wisely  that, who should be your neach reader ,either of them or both of them.

4. AI Powered Audio Advertising


 Interactive Audio Advertising is also spreading day by day with the growing popularity of Alexa,Google Home, Smart Phone,Smart earphone etc. .

So, if you really want to be in the main stream of blogging, you must have to update your self,update your blog with current trending technologies. Advertising is not only a static and banner ads today. Now AI based Interactive audio advertising also getting popular day by day.

5.What You Are Writing , Has Been Written Already.


  Almost anything, that you are thinking about writing in your blog ,is already written somewhere on  the web.So, SEO,Email Marketing  and other internet marketing tools playing great role for ranking the website.There is a point against this concept.That is google is continuously updating its algorithm to deliver the genuine content.If seo dominates the internet ,then new site will not survive at all , but actually it does not happen.Thousands and thousands of new sites are getting rank on google per month.

6.People often get the wrong impression of Mike


 Develop a good writer within yourself. Make a good Impression first .Land with tons of surprises .But that does not mean,that  only content is king; because you know that-

People often get the wrong impression of Mike.A clever businessman is just one side of Mike. The other side is the same as the rest of us, a true rocker!  -Ronnie Wood,Famous English rock Musician.

 7.Age of Open Internet

 This is an era of open internet ,internet has reached almost every corner of the globe with bulk usage per month.The countries like india(> 560 millions) , China (>829 millions) have millions of users base ( according to its increasing day by day. An opportunity has been opened up towards the bloggers.

Thank you.


P.S. – Inspire Blogging and Share Thoughts.Good community often comes with unexpected help.

How to listen to any website article at free of cost, with the Pocket App.

How to listen to any website article at free of cost, with the Pocket App.

Listen to any website article at free of cost.

Do you read lots of  websites per day ? Do you feel that this is more time consuming for you to read . Then this trick is going to give you a relief.
Here we are going to give you an option to convert every website into an audio version of it. For this you just have to install an app and  it’s free of cost .Though we don’t know how long it will provide this service at free of cost.

Well,now see how to do that thing. 

1.Go to playstore and search for Pocket app.

2.Now download and install it.

3.Open pocket and signup

4.Now open chrome app and open any web article.

5.Copy the url of the article page by finger  tapping on the url section.It will notify you that ‘url copied

6.Now open the Pocket app.

7.As soon as you land on the home page,it will show you the  following message at the bottom area -Save URL? You have to tap on Save button to save the copied url.

8.Once the url is saved it will be processed and the saved article will be displayed on the page.

9. Now plugin the headphone/ earphone .

10. Go to the Pocket app and you will see a headphone icon on the header section.

11.Just tap that icon and a Play button will arrive on the screen.

12. select the article and tap on the Play button to start the audio.

This is an awesome feature and available for smart phone only.

Pocket is  a book marking application, saves any web article within it and you can search it at a convenient time.There is  a premium version available ,you can try it also.

How to transalate a Website on PC and Smartphone.

How to transalate a Website on PC and Smartphone.

How to translate a website on PC and Phone:

There are so many interesting things on the internet, but if it’s written in an unknown language, then it becomes very difficult for us to understand.Here we will provide you with an option to translate any website from any language within a minute.So let’s jump straight into the topic on ‘How to translate a website using PC and Mobile’

For PC:

1.Go to google translate.For this you have to type the following url in the  browser

2.There you can find two boxes. Select  ‘DETECT LANGUAGE’ option on your left hand side box .It will detect any language within the website and will translate it accordingly.On the right-hand side box select the language from the drop-down box.The website will be translated to this language.

3. Head over to the website, which you want to translate. Copy the url of that particular page or you can copy the main url of the website.

4.Go back to Google Translate Page.Paste the url in the left hand side box. After a few seconds an url will appear on the right box.Click on that url. Now you will land on the translated  webpage. That’s it.

For Smartphone:

1.Go to the play store and search for google translate app.Download and Install it on your phone.Then  open it .

2.Follow the above steps from 2 to 4.

Other Feature of Google Translate:

There is another unique feature of google doc ie. It can also translate documents. All the supported documents are given below.   

Document extensions- .doc, .docx, .odf, .pdf, .ppt, .pptx, .ps, .rtf, .txt, .xls, or .xlsx

Steps to translate Document:

1.On the Header area of the google translate, two tabs are present. One is Text and the other one is Documents.

2.You have to click on Documents .
3.Then select DETECT LANGUAGE from the left box and required language in the right box. 

3.Click on Browse your Computer and upload the document with supported format.

4.A Translate tab will appear on the screen .Click on that and the translation process will start.

Translated documents will appear on the screen within a few moments, depending on the length of the document .

Quibi : Netflix and Hulu alternative is going to hit the market in 2020.

Quibi : Netflix and Hulu alternative is going to hit the market in 2020.

Quibi is a new type of steaming platform snoring in the silicon valley and it’s going to hit the market on coming month in 2020.
The chief executive officer of Quibi group is  Meg Whiteman and the Chief Project officer is Jeffrey Katzenberg. Meg Whiteman was a board member of Procter & Gamble and Dropbox.
Whitman previously served as President and CEO of Hewlett Packard Enterprise. Whitman was a senior member of Mitt Romney’s presidential campaign in both 2008 and 2012 and ran for governor of California.


Jeffrey Katzenberg was the chairman of Walt Disney Studios from 1984 to 1994,The Little Mermaid (1989), Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992), and The Lion King (1994) were  the biggest hits of Disney Production House in this tenure. He was a co-founder and CEO of DreamWorks Animation, where he oversaw the production of animated franchises as Shrek, Madagascar, Kung Fu Panda, Monsters vs. Aliens and How to Train Your Dragon.

The Quibi constructed with two words Quick and Bite. From the name itself ,it’s referred that Quibi is short form of video streaming service. Katzenberg has made it clear that videos in the Quibi are of 7 to 10 minutes long and this is totally different from that of Netflix ,Hulu or other streaming platforms. Normally viewers are habituated with 1 to 2 hours long movie stream ,but in Quibi the long duration movie or content will be delivered as episode forms. Every episode  is  less than or equal to 10 min long. This is not a free service ,the subscription rate is 4.99 dollar and 7.99 dollar. Smaller one comes with advertisement where as the other one does not include any form of advertisement.

What is the difference between Quibi and other streaming platform?


  • As we have already mentioned that all contents will be delivered as short length episodes ,so this is one thing that is remarkable .
  • The other difference is that it will display the video as portrait and landscape form.In other platform when we switch from landscape mode to portrait mode the viewing area minimises into the corner or at the top of your smart phone.But in Quibi, there will be totally different viewing perspective.This new Technology is called ‘Turnstyle’, which allows user to move between landscape and portrait mode seamlessly.
  • This is a mobile only service and aiming to grab the large smartphone user base.
  • In Youtube there is a skip button to skip the ad, but in Quibi there is no such button.The only way, you can get rid of ads, is to get the higher subscription.
  •  There are lots of new and special features in the Quibi,such as, the content will of hollywood lebel.Some of the renowned producers (e.g. Steven Spielberg) and hollywood wellknown persons  have collaborated with Quibi to deliver high quality contents.

What sort of things will be there in Quibi?

Quibi will  come with 175 shows 8600 episodes and total 3 hours contents will be added on every single day . Some special Quibi only shows will be displayed every day.Besides some cool ideas have been introduced, such as morning special content ,content for the sleeping time ,News etc.
Some biggest market giants are already partnered with Quibi for their advertisement. Samsung, Warner Bros,Alibaba,T Mobiles have already spent millions of Dollars to use the Quibi’s platform to showcase their products.

Well, time will tell, what will happen in the steaming world in the upcoming days .Let’s wait and see.

What is VPN?

What is VPN?

What Is VPN?

VPN stands for virtual private network.To provide user security and privacy over the public network,vpn is one of the trusted mechanisms ,used  by different users all over the world.To access private files or resources from remote network without disclosing sensitive information to hackers or third party agent ,vpn creates a non penetrable layer over the communication channel or pathway.


When the client and the server system both are in LAN network then the probability of data theft is less compared to the WAN ,where one needs an internet connection to connect with the server resources. So there is a high chance that your data gets leaked by some hackers. 

VPN was primarily used by different companies to securely access the server resources from the remote location over the internet.

VPN creates a virtual private network on the WAN.  So when a client system, trying to fetch the data of remote server,it assumes that it is pulling data from a local server.

How Does VPN Work?

VPN uses tunnelling protocol to make the communication channel non-penetrable for hacker.More over the data travelling through the tunnel gets encrypted. In this way, this technology becomes more secure and make data more private. Though nothing is impossible to be completely impenetrable in this era but, somehow, one can get some security against identity theft over the public network using this tunnelling technology.Only the VPN service provider has the true knowledge about the VPN users identity.

There are mainly two types of VPN in networking.

Remote access VPN:

In this type of VPN, users get access to the LAN server from a remote system. It is mainly used when an employee wants to access the company’s secured file from a location, which is not near to the companies head office Or the person has to travel a lot for company’s business purposes; In that case, remote access vpn allow that person to connect with the Company’s Local Network.In this type of VPN only one user can access the Local Network through the VPN tunnel.

All that are required for this type of VPN connection a VPN client software and Network access Service(NAS) or Remote Access Service(RAS).

VPN client software needs to be installed at client software and it will be responsible for encapsulation and encryption of data to be sent.Then the data gets travelled through secured tunnel on the internet Then the NAS will validate the credential of the sent data .If its validated then the data gets into the VPN gateway and then it is sent towards the destination ip address. This mechanism is  called IPSec Remote VPN. 

Site to Site VPN:

Site to Site VPN is used to connect more than one user to a Remote Network.When there are multiple branch of an Office and multiple users, under one branch, want to access the Head Office Network, then Site to Site VPN is used to make the connection. In that case a router at the sending end is configured as a VPN gateway and another router is configured as another VPN gateway at the receiving end .That means at both ends (i.e at Head office terminal as well as Branch terminal) a router should be established . Whenever a data needs to be sent from one location to another location ,that data first goes to the router of that end and it is encrypted there .Then that cypher text data is encapsulated and then it is travelled through the internet. When the data hit the receiving end router (which is configured as VPN terminal) , it gets decrypted and then forwarded to the actual receiving ip address.

The above mechanism is called IPSec Mechanism, where the payload data (the data which is sent ) gets encrypted and then encapsulated with a virtual IP address, (provided by the VPN gateway of that terminal) destined to another virtual ip address.

Also Read:-

Microsoft Word Tricks.

Run Command Tricks.

Types of API.

Useful Run Commands in Windows 10

Useful Run Commands in Windows 10

Windows Run Commands (Windows+R)

In the Windows operating system run(Windows+R) command is used to open any application directly if it’s path is known.
Sometimes it is tedious to open a file or application, whose destination path is too long i.e you have to travel too many folders to access the file. For this, you can paste the destination path in the run box and search from there. Then the file or application will be opened directly. 
Sometimes you can open any application simply typing its name or, name with its extension. We are introducing some tricky and very useful run commands for everyday use in Windows 10, 8 and 7.
So, here it is. 

How to open run box in windows computer?

To execute windows run commands you first have to open the run box on the screen.To open the run box just press the four-flagged windows key along with the letter R (windows+R).Then write the windows run command within that box and press Enter key.

Application and short history of Windows Run commands:

List of run commands in Windows 10, 8,7:

Windows version information

Command: winver.exe
Function: Display windows version information.
Location: C:\Windows\system32\winver.exe

User Account and control setting

Command: UserAccountControlSettings.exe
Function: Change user account control settings
Location: C:\Windows\System32\UserAccountControlSettings.exe

System Configuration

Command: Msconfig
Function: Opens the system configuration utility
Location: C:\Windows\System32\msconfig.exe

Local Users and Groups

Command: Lusrmgr.msc
Function: Opens the local users and groups.
Location: C:\Windows\System32\lusrmgr.msc

Security and Maintenance

Command: wscui.cpl
Function: Open Security and maintenance
Location: C:\Windows\System32\wscui.cpl

Set screen Resolution and others

Command: Desk.cpl
Display Properties
Location: Control Panel\Appearance and Personalization\Display\Screen Resolution

Microsoft troubleshooter

Command: control.exe /name Microsoft.Troubleshooting
Troubleshoot problems with your computer
Location: C:\Windows\System32\control.exe /name Microsoft.Troubleshooting

Computer management

Command: compmgmt.msc
Function: View and configure system settings and component from
Location: C:\Windows\System32\compmgmt.msc

System information

Command: msinfo32.exe
Function: View advance information about hardware and software settings.
Location: C:\Windows\System32\msinfo32.exe

Event Viewer

Command: eventvwr
Function: View monitor and troubleshooting messages
Location: C:\Windows\System32\eventvwr.exe

Program and Features

Function: Launce,repair, remove,or add program and windows component
Command: appwiz.cpl
Location: C:\Windows\System32\appwiz.cpl

System Properties

Function: Open system properties
Command: control.exe system
Location: C:\Windows\System32\control.exe system

Internet explorer properties

Function: Open Internet explorer properties.
Command: inetcpl.cpl
Location: C:\Windows\System32\inetcpl.cpl

Resource monitor

Function: Monitor the performance of local and remote computer
Command: resmon.exe
Location: C:\Windows\System32\resmon.exe

Task Manager

Function: View the details about the program and the process running on the computer.
Command: taskmgr.exe
Location: C:\Windows\System32\taskmgr.exe

Command Prompt

Function: Open command prompt window
Command: cmd
Location: C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe

Remote Assistance

Command: msra.exe
Function: Receive (or offer help) from a friend over the internet.
Location: C:\Windows\System32\msra.exe

Device Manager

Command: Devmgmt.msc
Function: Opens the device manager
Location: C:\Windows\System32\devmgmt.msc

System Restore.

Command: rstrui.exe
Function: Restore your computer system to an earlier state.
Location: C:\Windows\System32\rstrui.exe

Disk defragmentation

Function: Opens Windows’ disk defragment
Command: Dfrgui
Location: C:\Windows\System32\dfrgui.exe

Disk Management

Command: Diskmgmt.msc
Function: Opens the disk management tool
Location: C:\Windows\System32\diskmgmt.msc

Shared Folders

Command: Fsmgmt.msc
Function: Opens shared folders
Location: C:\Windows\System32\fsmgmt.msc

Group Policy Editor

Command: Gpedit.msc
Function: Opens the group policy editor
Location: C:\Windows\System32\gpedit.msc

Overview of Performance Monitor

Command: Perfmon.msc
Function: Shows an overview of the performance monitor.
Location: “C:\Windows\System32\perfmon.msc”

Performance Monitor

Command: Perfmon.exe
Function: Open Performance Monitor.
Location: C:\Windows\System32\perfmon.exe

Registry Editor

Command: Regedit

Function: Opens the registry editor
Location: “C:\Windows\System32\regedt32.exe”

Resultant Set of Policies

Command: Rsop.msc
Function: Opens resultant set of policy
Location: “C:\Windows\System32\rsop.msc”

Local security settings

Command: Secpol.msc
Function: Opens local security settings

Service Utility

Command: Services.msc
Function: Opens services utility

System configuration editor

Command: Sysedit
Function: Opens system configuration editor

loading information

Command: System.ini
Function: Windows loading information

Windows loading information

Command: Win.ini
Function: Shows windows loading information

Version of windows

Command: Winver
Function: Shows current version of Windows

Date/Time Setup

Command: Timedate.cpl
Function: Date/Time Properties
Location: “C:\Windows\System32\timedate.cpl”

Change computer fonts.

Command: Fonts
Function: Opens Fonts Folder.
Location: C:\Windows\Fonts

Keyboard Properties

Command: Main.cpl keyboard
Function: Opens Keyboard Properties
Location: C:\Windows\System32\Main.cpl

Mouse Properties

Command: Main.cpl
Function: Mouse Properties
Location: C:\Windows\System32\Main.cpl

Region and Language settings

Command: Intl.cpl
Function: Opens Region and Language settings page.
Location: C:\Windows\System32\Intl.cpl


Command: Mmsys.cpl
Function: Sound Properties. Set Playback device.
Location: “C:\Windows\System32\mmsys.cpl”

System Properties

Command: Sysdm.cpl
Function: Opens system properties.
Location: C:\Windows\System32\sysdm.cpl

Network Connection window

Command: Ncpa.cpl

Location: C:\Windows\System32\control.exe ncpa.cpl

Add scanner and camera.

Command: control sticpl.cpl
Function: Check scanners and cameras,add scanners and cameras etc.
Location: Control Panel->Devices and Printer –>view scanners and cameras.

Current User’s Folder

Command: . (one dot)
Function: Opens current users folder
Location: C:\Users(current_user)

All users’ folder

Command: .. (double dot)
Function: Opens all users folder
Location: C:\Users

Performance Reliability Report

Command : perfmon /rel (There is space between perfmon and /)
Function : Review your computer’s reliability and problem History

Remote Desktop Connection

Command: mstsc
Function: Opens remote desktop connection dialogue box.


Command: notepad
Function: Opens Windows Notepad.

Microsoft Paint

Command: mspaint
Function: Opens Microsoft Paint.


Command: calc
Function: Opens Calculator

File Browser/Quick access

Command: explorer
Function: Opens Quick access, where you can find recetly used file and frequently used folder.

Local Temp Folder

command: %temp%
Function: Opens local temporary Files folder.From there you can delete temp files or other related jobs.
Location: C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Temp

Windows Temp Folder

Command: Temp
Function: Opens windows Temp Folder.These temporary files can be deleted from here.
Location: C:\Windows\Temp

Recent Files and folders used by user

Command: Recent
Function: Opens list of all the recently used files and folders.
Location: C:\Users\user\Recent

Appdata Folder

Command: %appdata%
Function: Opens users appdata folder.
Location: C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming

Also Read-

Avedev Function in MSEXCEL.
SQL ddl,dql,dml,dcl,tcl commands.
Hidden tricks of Microsoft Word.

How to use the AVEDEV function in MS Excel.

How to use the AVEDEV function in MS Excel.

What is AVEDEV:

AVEDEV returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. Before we learn how to apply the formula in excel, let us clear the concepts of Average Deviation from Mean.

What is Average Deviation from Mean ?

Suppose, you have the following data set {2,4,6,8}. Then we easily calculate the average point of this given set of data .So average point will be (2+4+6+8)/4 =5. Now mean deviation can be expressed as, the difference or deviation of the data points (i.e. 2,4.6,8) from their mean(average) point (i.e. 5).As for example, the absolute deviation of point 2 from its mean point is =|2-5|=|-3|=3 .Here you’ve to notice the absolute term, for which we have taken the mod bracket i.e. | | . So now we’ll calculate Average absolute mean deviation i.e. =( |2-5| + |6-5| + |4-5| + |8-5|)/4 =(3+1+1+3)/4=8/4=2. So, if we write the formula of finding average mean deviation it will look like as following – (1/n) |∑ x-x̄ | .

How to apply AVEDEV function in MS Excel

Now we shall see how to apply the formula in AVEDEV in MSEXCEL. We have the following table, where daily sales transactions are mentioned.

Avedev,avedev excel,avedev in excel,avedev function

Now, if you want to evaluate the deviation of total sales from its average daily sales amount, then follow this process .First of all, select a blank cell, where you want to get the avg. mean deviation amount. Then write the following piece of formula in to the cell i.e.
                   =AVEDEV (B2, B8)
 where B2 and B8 are the first and last cell of the total sale column respectively. Here you can select the entire column using mouse instead of putting the first and last cell name manually. Now press enter and you you’ll get the required value.

Also Read :

How does VLOOKUP formula works in MS EXCEL
How to do Merge Cell In MS EXCEL
Hidden Tricks of Microsoft Word
Voice typing feature in Google Docs.

Introduction to SQL -DDL,DML,DCL,DQL

Introduction to SQL -DDL,DML,DCL,DQL

What is SQL?

SQL stands for structure query language. SQL is a query language used for accessing and modifying information in the database. Before discussing about Structure Query Language’s- DDL,DML,DQL & TCL ,lets have a quick introduction to some basic staffs of SQL.

SQL Database Design:

IBM developed SQL in 1970 .it has become standard Universal language used by most of the relational database management system RDBMS .some of the RDBMS systems are Microsoft SQL  ,Oracle SQL, Sybase, My SQL ,Microsoft Access etc.

Features of SQL:

In a simple manner SQL is Non Procedural English like Language for storing retrieving and updating data in the database.

SQL processes data in a group of records rather than one record at a time.

What is non procedural language?

SQL is a non procedural language .using this type of language, a programmer does not need to instruct the RDBMS how to evaluate the results .you only have to tell the RDBMS what you want to get.

Each RDBMS has its inbuilt query optimizer that passes your SQL statements and find out the optimum path to the required data.

Some jobs of SQL:

Store data
modify data
retrieve data
 delete data
 create tables and other database objects

What is RDBMS?

 RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System. RDBMS is the foundation of SQL and for all modern database systems like MS SQL, MySQL, IBM DB2 to Oracle and Microsoft Access .A relational database management system, which is based on the relational model, was introduced by Mr. EF Codd.

What is table?

In RDBMS every data gets stored in tables. Tables are situated within the database and database is situated within the SQL server. Tables can be said as database objects, which consist of some related data within its fields and records.

What is field?

Every table in the database can be broken up into smaller entities called fields. The fields are something like columns in Microsoft Excel.

What is record?

Records are the rows in the table.Whenever you insert some data in the Table, that data gets stored along the records or rows.

Classifications of SQL commands:

SQL commands can be classified into five main groups.

These are DDL (Data Definition Language), DML (Data Manipulation Language), DCL (Data Control Language), DQL (Data Query Language), TCL (Transaction control language)

Data Definition Language, COMMANDS and Description:

CREATE – This command is used to create a new TABLE i.e. a new object in database.

This is an EMPLOYEE  table in an Organization. It consists of five Fields , namely Emp_ID, Emp_Name, Emp_Address, Emp_Designation, Emp_Salary.

Emp_ID Emp_Name Emp_Address Emp_Designation Emp_Salary

CREATE TABLE <table_name>
column1 <data_type>,
column2 <data_type>,

To create this table we can use following query.

Emp_ID int not null,
Emp_Name varchar(10),
Emp_Address varchar(20),
Emp_Designation varchar(25),
Emp_Salary decimal(5,2)

Here, number, char, varchar -are the data types and the permissible lengths of the values of the data variables are defined within the brackets( next to data type’s names ).

ALTER –    This command is used to modify an existing TABLE that is database object.

Suppose you want to modify the above table. Example- Add another column for ‘Employee date of birth’ (Emp_DOB) .Like as below.

Emp_ID Emp_Name Emp_Address Emp_Designation Emp_Salary Emp_DOB


ALTER TABLE <table name> ADD <column name> <data type>

Following command is used to add another that column.

ADD Emp_DOB date ;

Here ‘date ‘ is the datatype for Emp_DOB.

DROP –     This command is used to delete an entire TABLE or a COLUMN of a table in the database.

This command is used to delete an entire table or other database objects.It’s also used to delete any column within a table.

Syntax– For deleting entire table –
DROP <table_name>

Syntax For deleting a column in a table –
ALTER TABLE <table_name> DROP <column_name>

  • Following statement will drop the entire EMPLOYEE table from the database.

  • Following statement will drop the ‘Emp_Salary’ column from EMPLOYEE table .

Notes :

Following command is used to see the created table structure ,all the columns and the data types of those columns etc.


To Search all the columns of the EMPLOYEE table use the following query.


To find the EMPLOYEE table from the whole database use the following query.

SELECT ‘there is a table with the required name ‘ AS search_result ELSE SELECT ‘no such table in the database’ AS search_result;

Data Manipulation Language, COMMANDS and Descriptions:

INSERT – This command is used to create a Record within a Table


INSERT INTO <table_name> (column 1,column 2,column 3,…..column n) VALUES (value 1,value 2,value 3,……,value n);

INSERT INTO table_name VALUES(value 1, value 2, value 3,………., value n)

  • To insert an employee detail into the above table we have to use the following query.

    VALUES ( Emp_name,Emp_name,Emp_address,Emp_designation,Emp_salary)
    VALUES(1,’William’,’San Francisco’,’Programmer’,5000.00) ;


    INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE VALUES(1,’William’,’San Francisco’,’Programmer’,5000.00)

UPDATE- This command is used to modify Record within a table

This type of Query is used to update any row or record in a table.

UPDATE <table_name> SET <column_name> = <value> WHERE <reference_column_name> = <value_of_reference_column>;

  • To update the salary in the first row of the above table use the following query.

    UPDATE EMPLOYEE SET Emp_salary=6000.00 WHERE Emp_ID=1;

DELETE- This command is used to delete a record from a Table

Syntax :-
DELETE FROM <table_name> WHERE <reference_column_name> =<reference_value>;

  • To delete the first row of the above table you can use following query.



To delete duplicate row use this command.

        ORDER BY

Data Control Language, COMMANDS and Description:

GRANT- This command is used to give some privilege to particular user.

This command is used to give permission to perform SELECT,DELETE,CREATE etc. operation on particular table by any user.

GRANT <privileges_name> ON <database_object> TO <users>;

  • To give permission of running SELECT and CREATE statements on EMPLOYEE table to user1, use the following query.


REVOKE- This command is used to take back the privilege from the user.

This command is used to restrict any user from performing SELECT,CREATE,DELETE etc. operation on any database object like, table.

REVOKE <privileges_name> ON <database_object_name> FROM <user_name>

  • To restrict user1 from running SELECT statement on EMPLOYEE table, use the following query.


Data Query Language, COMMANDS and Description:

SELECT- This command is used to retrieve certain records from one or more tables.

  • This command is used to retrieve data from any table.Several conditions can be applied along with this command ;such as, retrieve data withing a given date range or, retrieve data of some particular records from the table, where some conditions are matched.

  • SELECT * FROM <table_name>
  • SELECT * FROM <table_name> WHERE <reference_column_name>=<value _in the reference_column>;
  • To retrieve all the data from the EMPLOYEE table use the following query.
  • To retrieve the data of the first row of the EMPLOYEE table, use the following query.

Transaction Control Language, COMMANDS Description:

COMMIT-   This command is used to save the changes occurred in table.

Syntax: COMMIT

Example-First of all make a delete operation on the above table and run the COMMIT commands .The changes made in the database is confirmed and the changes are permanent.


After doing the commit operation ,there is no way to get back to the previous stage.

ROLLBACK- This command is used to restore the table to its previous form at the time ,when the last query was run.

This command is used to get back to the previous stages after running any query.Suppose you have done delete operation on any table. After that if you run the ROLLBACK command then no changes will be made on the database ,that means the delete operation will not have any effect on the table ultimately.



Run the following commands.


Now, if you do SELECT operation then you can see that , no effect has been made by the DELETE operation.

SAVEPOINT- This command is used to create a ‘restore point’ or ‘save point’, before making any changes to the table. At a later time one can use this ‘save point’ as a restore point to ROLLBACK the table.

Syntax:– SAVE TRANSACTION <save_point _name>


Save point is similar to the restore point in Computer.Suppose you have created a save point (sp1). Then you have done a delete operation on particular table.Now you make another save point(sp2) and insert some data in the table. Then again you create a save point (sp3) and do another changes in the table.

Now, if you want to go back to the initial stage i.e. restore the table to its original form, then you can use the save point sp1 as a reference point to restore the table.

In the following codes we have used save point and its very easy to understand the function of save point from it.



>INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE (Emp_ID,Emp_Name,Emp_Salary) VALUES(5,’Rocky’,3000.00);



>UPDATE EMPLOYEE SET Emp_Salary=’8000.00′;




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What is Application Programming Interface(API) and different API types.

What is Application Programming Interface(API) and different API types.

What is an API and how does it work?

API stands for Application Programming Interface. API can be explained as a set of functions or subroutines or set of procedures or set of communication protocols, which is used to build software and applications.

Example 1:

Suppose you want to create a weather app or an app that can easily convert the currencies to a desired currency .Now you will think that this weather and currency both are changeable quantities and you alone can not keep track of those things. Then how can you build that app?

In this case, if you  get an access to the server of weather department or get an access into the database of stock exchange department then your work can be more easy .But question is that how can you fetch data from those servers, as your application is totally different from those  applications. You can do this with the help of API. It’s an

Example 2:

Suppose you have a confectionery shop in the middle of the city and you want to spread the business. So, decided to create an online website to sell those stuffs .But here is a twist, you want to link your tally based billing software with the website .So whenever there is an order appears into your website that order data will go to the software database. So how you can do this thing?

Here also the answer is API.API will help you to integrate these two platforms.

Example 3:

In modern application you have often seen that ,whenever you try to log in to these applications they are giving you the option to login using Google account or Facebook account .So here you can ask yourself, how these can be possible , as these applications are totally different from that of Google and Facebook. And these are not the child applications either of these two companies.

Here also, the API is helping you to do that thing. Application Programming Interface is extracting some data from Google’s or Facebook’s server and use it to login to their own applications.

API stands for Application Programming Interface. API can be explained as a set of functions or subroutines or set of procedures or set of communication protocols, which is used to build software and applications.

What is subroutine?

Subroutine is quite similar as the function in programming. Function is used to do repetitive tasks; you define some set of codes inside a function and whenever you need that function to execute in the code you just make a call of that function.

Subroutine is also like function. Within the subroutines we define some set of codes for execution and you make call to that subroutine for execution.

Then what is the difference between subroutine and function?

In case of function, it returns a value after the execution but subroutine does not return a value compulsorily, rather it does execute the code or instructions and stop execution after the end of the codes and inform the main program about its completion.

What is synchronous programming?

Synchronous instructions are something like step by step instructions. A computer program runs from the first line of code to the last line in step by step way, means after completing the first line of code it starts to execute the second line of code and so on.

Example of synchronous application:

In real life operation you have often seen such application where you have to fill up a form  with some information as well as have to upload a photo to the form. In that case, after clicking on the photo upload button , you’ve to wait for some seconds to complete the process. After that only, you can fill up the other options in the form. So this is an example of synchronous application where you can do the next job after completion of the previous job.

What is asynchronous programming?

Asynchronous programming is a parallel programming where a unit of code runs parallel with the main application thread in a separate place .Whenever there is a requirement to run that piece of code we CALL that code. After the execution of its code it inform the calling thread about it’s completion.

Example of asynchronous application:

In the previous example if we use an asynchronous programming at the time of photo uploading then, you can go to the next options on the form to fill them immediately after clicking the photo upload button. And when the upload will be completed it will only notify you about the completion of the uploading. So you do not need to wait for some seconds for uploading.

Types of API:

There are mainly four types of API used for different purposes.

Public API: These types of API are publicly available. Anyone can use these API to build software or applications. There is thousands of open API available in the internet. As for example – Google’s API; most of the Google’s API are available at free of cost. If you want to integrate Google’s map in your application, you can easily get those API from Google.

Private API: These types of API are mainly used for company’s internal purposes. To integrate different products or software modules within the same company these types of API are used. These are not available for public or any third party.

Partner API: This types of API are used to integrate two different applications of two different companies .There is an agreement between the two companies for the use of their api . The limitations of applicability of such api are also made at this time. In such scenarios owner imposes some specific rights, license agreement, authorization and security protocols on the use of their api to others .

Composite API: Composite API is something like suppose you’ve made an API CALL; so some pieces of code will get executed for that call. And the outcome of that code will be taken as the input to another API and the outcome of this API will initiate another API execution .So in this way a single API CALL can execute multiple APIs synchronously .This type of API is called as Composite API.

Web API:

There are mainly four types of web API available in the market .Such as –


Before we discuss the individual web APIs ,their functionalities ,let us know what is web service.web service is a set of software application through which two different application can communicate with each other on the world wide web .In web service communication the client application makes a request to the server and get the response from that server. This communication mechanism is constructed with Medium and Format .Medium is the http protocol, over which the communication is made. Format is the common understandable language, using which the two different applications communicate. XML (Extensible Mark-up Language ) , JSON are the examples of format in web service. XML is widely used format language for web communication.

In web service communication the client application makes a request to the server and get the response from that server.

Why XML is used as a data transfer language?

Suppose there is an application, written in .net, wants to communicate with another application over the World Wide Web ; But this application is written in java. So how can this be possible as the two platforms are made of two different languages? For this reason XML (Extensible Mark-up Language ) is used. XML is platform independent language. Most of the programming languages understand XML based message.

There are several types of web services available but we will discuss about two main types –SOAP and REST web services.

World Wide Web consortium (W3C) defines the different standards and rules for different web services. According to that, we can depict a web service whether it’s a soap or rest or other web service.

SOAP Web Service:

In this type of web service, the Protocol is HTTP and the format used in this case is XML . This XML format must be in XML message format .This XML message contains one Envelope element, within which one Header and one Body element exist.

REST Web Service:

REpresentational State Transfer. This is an architectural style service. In this type of web service message format is JSON or XML or HTML or Txt etc. and HTTP is the protocol for communication. To access resources (such as picture, video, documents etc.) in the server we can use REST service call from browser.

What is Representational State in rest web services?

If we want to get access to the server resources, such as picture, video, song, document, user data etc. then we make a call to get those data. In Rest web services we do not get access to the server data but instead of that we get a REpresentational response or a copy of the requested resource.

How to get the detail functionality of web service from a service provider ?

For this reason WSDL or Web Service Description Language has been developed. Every web service provider has to publish their web service detail, all the return types, parameters, how to access their web services, and detail functionalities of their web services in an XML based document.

Every web service provider has to publish this WSDL document through an online directory, called UDDI or. Universal Description Discovery and Integration. This is also an XML based online directory through which web services publisher can publish their services and any consumer can consume the services.

Difference between web services and API:

  • Web service needs network connection to communicate with client. But in API, it can communicate through network and offline basis .If the library file exist within the server or within the client application then no need to have the network. In c, java programming you often include library file within the local application .In this case main java program (or c program)can communicate with library file without having the network connection.
  • Web service support soap, REST and XML- RPC based web services. API supports all of these services as well as it supports JSON RPC, curl based services.It can be constructed with local  jar,dll, XML format and can communicate over http, JSON protocol.
  • So all web services can be stated as API but all API can not be imagined as web services.
API vs web Service. application interface programming,what is apis.


We have already discussed about the soap web service .The functionality is same for both the case. The only difference is that in case of soap api you have to use it as an interface between your server and the client. SOAP means Simple Object Access Protocol.


Here is also the functionalities or working principles are the same REST Web service. In case of API you have to use it as an interface.

Quick example of Application Programming Interface and web services, how do they work together:

Suppose you are selling the same products from Amazon as well as from eBay .Now whenever you want to upload products to these online websites, you have to upload it into both sites. In these cases you are interacting with Amazon and eBay web services directly from your device. Now if you want to use any warehouse website to upload these products. Then you do not need to upload them at individual websites manually. What you just have to do ,is that you’ve to upload that  product at warehouse website and the warehouse api will interact with these two web services and upload your product into their websites. In this case generally curl methodology is used to call the web services.


RPC stands for Remote Procedure Call. From its name it’s clear that some sort of Procedure ( procedure is similar to function in programming) is situated at remote location and it is CALLed from another system or application. So in this type of application client does not execute whole codes; rather , it execute the codes at remote server using remote procedure call .Whenever the codes get executed the result is revert back to client.

XML and JSON are used as the format message for exchanging data between the server and client; according to which the RPC is divided into two groups namely XML-RPC and JSON-RPC.

Google API:

 There are a bunch of Google’s api available for free use .Google’s map,googles login, Google authentication, Google calendars etc. Go to following link to see the detail about Google’s API –

Flickr API:

Flickr APIallow developers to work with Flickr.They can upload, modify or retry photo at Flickr.They can use Flickr APIto integrate Flickr photo to their website also .Go to following link to see the Flickr API-

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